Jun 22, 2020
HOW TO FIND WATER IN EXTREME SITUATIONS
ALL THE METHODS TO MAKE WATER DRINKABLE
The man is made up of about 60% of water, and normally must take 2 to 3 liters per day. It should be borne in mind that the demand for water increases, in the presence of hot or humid climates and fatigue, even up to 5-8 liters per day.
In case of survival, it is essential to be able to drink at least 1 liter of water a day, rationing it and drinking it in small sips, wetting the lips first to make the most of every drop.
Water is synonymous with life if you can last up to 40 days without eating, without water you can only last a couple of days in resting conditions.
THINGS NOT TO DRINK:
Even if you are in extreme survival situations NEVER DRINK:
– Alcoholic drinks: In cold climates, drinking alcohol at first can give a sense of warmth but subsequently there is a more intense body cooling than that which was had before drinking. In warm climates, however, it dehydrates the body. Drinking alcohol also decreases mental and motor skills.
– Urine: Contain the waste of our body. It is seriously not recommended to drink your own urine or that of animals.
– Blood: can cause diarrhea, infections, gastrointestinal problems or other metabolic problems.
– Sea water: it contains too much salt, in case of lack of water you can resist longer by remaining without drinking than by drinking sea water since salt water dehydrates and causes damage to the kidneys.
– Petrol or chemical compounds (such as thinners, detergents …).
– Stagnant water from ponds, pools …
– Ice or snow (we would unnecessarily consume precious heat to our body, better dissolve it in a saucepan or in the absence of fire put it in a dark container).
– Off-white liquid, milky sap of some plants (with a particularly bright and bitter color, it could be poisonous).
– Dirty water with foam and bubbles and a nauseating smell.
– Water where there are dead animals inside.
– Strange colored water or where the surrounding vegetation is dead or missing.
Never drink cold water if you are hot.
NOT SMOKING! Smoking removes liquids and vitamins from the body.
Urine is formed with the body’s waste substances, but in extreme situations, if no source of water is found, you can drink it. However, consider urine as a last resort.
Water can transmit all sorts of viruses and microbes.
The symptoms resulting from the ingestion of contaminated water are: dysentery, severe and prolonged bloody diarrhea, fever, weakness, viruses and diseases (typhoid, cholera, etc.) or the presence of parasites in the body.
HOW TO FIND WATER:
With limited water, start drinking after 12 or 24 hours to make the most of the water in your body.
Rainwater can be collected in clean containers (the more water you have, the more you can collect). You can use anything that is capable of retaining water (bark or large leaves, coconuts, plastic bags, waterproof clothing and so on …) as a container. If the collected water is dirty, it is necessary to boil it or purify it before drinking it.
To collect rainwater you can tie a shirt or a piece of fabric to a tree, so that the end of the cloth hangs towards any type of container.
You can tie an absorbent cloth just above the shoes to collect rainwater in the grass.
You can build a canopy with bamboo by placing a horizontal channel to collect the water in a saucepan.
You can make a hole and lay a large waterproof sheet over it, creating a basin to collect rainwater.
Or you can dab a wet surface with a cloth and then wring out the contents in a saucepan.
Dew on plants and stones can be collected with a garment.
THE WATER INDICATORS:
To find rivers, lakes and waterways one must follow the points where the vegetation is more verdant or for example follow the animals (birds, mammals, bees, ants, a path recently beaten by animals or the presence of excrement near a crack) .
If you are surrounded by a mountain range, the water usually collects in the less inclined base as the flow is less fast.
The caves are created of water, by inspecting them to the bottom you can find streams of water.
Narrow gorges and crevasses can create small springs.
AVOID digging into porous and crumbly soils as water in those cases accumulates too deeply.
HOW TO COLLECT WATER IN A SWAMP:
Leave the mud to rest for half a day and then boil it for 10 minutes or alternatively filter with the filtering technique (explained later in the article).
Where to dig in a swamp?
WHERE TO EXCAVATE TO FIND WATER?
Digging in certain places (beds of dry rivers, dry lakes, valleys, humid soils, green areas …) you could be able to accumulate water inside holes or be able to concentrate small streams of water; in these cases, the water must still be boiled or purified.
There are some plants that love water such as willows, elderberries, reeds, water lilies. An excavation can be attempted in their vicinity to find water.
In the greenest and brightest grassy areas where the stems are tall and fleshy, an excavation can be attempted, the ground is certainly humid and there is the possibility of finding water. Fresh water can often be found behind the sand dunes along the sea.
WATER IN THE FLORA:
Water can be obtained from many plants, fruits, legumes, and plants.
For example coconut, watermelon contain a lot of water, but also the fruits of edible plants contain a good percentage of water (lemon, mango, avocado, pineapple, kiwi, oranges, and so on …).
Some plants store water both internally and externally (the top of a cactus can be cleaned and squeezed).
Green bamboo canes can provide water when folded.
OBTAINING WATER THROUGH CONDENSATION:
you can use a cloth or bag to drink condensed water on surfaces such as glass, metal, plant leaves.
Put a plastic bag around a green tree branch (see photo), seal and hang a stone or wood at the base to drain the water, obtained by condensation, downwards.
Mount the breathable bag in the morning and collect the water at the end of the day.
Use a different shrub every day.
With this system in 24 hours it is possible to obtain from 0.5 liters to 2 liters of water. By making more holes even more.
Dig a hole about 1 meter deep and wide, place a container at the bottom with a tube that comes out of the excavation (the straw will be used to avoid disassembling all the equipment every time you want to consume the water, however if you do not have a tube can also be done without).
Fill the bottom of the hole with vegetation rich in aqueous content (wet leaves …). Cover with a cloth (ca. 2X2 m) in nylon or plastic blocking it on the sides with soil and stones so as not to let air pass through.
Finally, the sheet is assumed to have a concave shape by placing a stone in the center.
The purifier works both day and night and produces distilled water as the temperature inside the hole rises and the vapor produced by the vegetation sticks to the towel which is colder and the condensate slips into the container in the form of droplets.
Never drinking sea water directly, the salt it contains, in the long run, can also lead to death; however, it is possible to boil it and collect the steam generated by boiling with your clothes and then wring them out or with a waterproof sheet or a plastic bag; however, there are substances suitable for desalination of sea water.
Another method to purify salt water is to fill a hole with sea water and throw hot stones into it, the steam produced will have to be collected with a garment or a cloth, and then squeezed into a container to be drunk.
INFO: Distilled water has no flavor. Transfer it from one container to another or mix quickly to enrich it with oxygen and make it tastier.
HOW TO PURIFY THE WATER:
– Use substances such as iodine or chlorine (2% iodine tincture: 5 drops in a liter of clear water, 10 drops in dark water, with this method wait at least 30 minutes before drinking; drinking pills or tablets: 1 tablet for water clear, 2 for dark water). Drinking tablets or tablets to purify the water: LINK.
– Boil in a saucepan for 10 minutes. (CLASSIC METHOD)
– With hot rocks:
– Use the filtering method (i.e. filter the water through several layers) before drinking the water to clean it of dirt and other impurities.
Inside a perforated container at the bottom, several layers are created (starting from the bottom) of gravel or smooth stones, pulverized vegetable coal obtained from the combustion of wood, sand or very fine soil and finally again gravel. If you do not have a container, you can use three sheets tied to a 1 meter tripod made with 3 woods. On the sheets put in this order (from above) gravel, coal and sand, or always in this order grass, sand, coal.
Then boil for 10 minutes.
In the absence of containers, a sock can be used. Fill it with vegetable charcoal, potting soil and fine sand. After filtering, a drop of urine can be added and the mixture mixed. Once the water has been filtered from impurities, boil it to make it drinkable.
Purify water with solar energy:
– Solar water Disinfection (also known as SODIS): Link
– There is also a recent invention: Solarball.
– With ultraviolet rays:
It is a small tool that can prove truly providential. It works thanks to ultraviolet (UV) rays which in a short time manage to purify the water.
Automatic translation from: http://www.sopravvivere.net/acqua/